• Noramaliza M.N Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • Mohd Amirul Azrie M.R Medical Physics Unit, Teaching Hospital Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nur Amalina A Medical Physics Unit, Teaching Hospital Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nur Syafinaz S Department of Physics, Faculty of Science Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia



Blood irradiator, EBT3 film, EBT-XD film, dosimetry, dose-mapping


The use of gamma rays to irradiate blood products have been demonstrated to reduce the probability of post-transfusion graft versus host disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of a new batch of Gafchromic EBT-XD films to map the homogeneity of gamma radiation dose delivered to the blood bags and identify the lowest and highest levels of radiation exposure to the blood. The Gammacell 3000 Elan Gamma irradiation chamber (GIC) @ Blood Irradiator with Cesium-137 source was used. During the gamma irradiation at an exposure of 8 minutes 51 seconds to deliver a central dose of 25 Gy to the film, the EBT-XD films were placed at the centre of a blood-equivalent phantom. The doses then were measured using dose mapping analysis of Gafchromic EBT-XD film. The responses of EBT-XD films were compared with EBT3 films and GS 300 Dose Mapping Report 2021 prepared by Best Theratronics Dosimetry Laboratory, Canada. Results showed the value of doses obtained from the mapping using EBT-XD were reliable compared with the doses measured in EBT3 film as they were in the range of the acceptable dose ranges for blood irradiation procedures. The mapping with EBT-XD film yielded a minimum dosage of 18 Gy and a maximum exposure of 32 Gy at 8 minutes 51 seconds of irradiation. In conclusion, EBT-XD offered excellent dosimetric characteristics and has a the potential to dose map the blood irradiator.


Olivo, R. A., Silva, M. V. D., Garcia, F. B., Soares, S., Rodrigues, V., & Moraes-Souza, H. (2015). Evaluation of the effectiveness of packed red blood cell irradiation by a linear accelerator. Revista brasileira de hematologia e hemoterapia, 37, 153-159.

Saglam, S., Cakir, A., & Kuter, S. (2011). Blood irradiation. In Modern Approaches To Quality Control. IntechOpen.

Casolaro, P. (2021). Radiochromic films for the two-dimensional dose distribution assessment Applied Sciences, 11(5), 2132.

Dreindl, R., Georg, D., & Stock, M. (2014). Radiochromic film dosimetry: considerations on precision and accuracy for EBT2 and EBT3 type films. Zeitschrift für Medizinische Physik, 24(2), 153-163.

Miura, H., Ozawa, S., Hosono, F., Sumida, N., Okazue, T., Yamada, K., & Nagata, Y. (2016). Gafchromic EBT XD film dosimetry characterization in high dose, volumetric modulated arc therapy. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics 17(6), 312-322.

Mohammadyari, P., Zehtabian, M., Sina, S., Tavasoli, A. R., & Faghihi, R. (2014). Dosimetry of gamma chamber blood irradiator using PAGAT gel dosimeter and Monte Carlo simulations. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, 15(1), 317-330.

Palmer, A. L., Dimitriadis, A., Nisbet, A., & Clark, C. H. (2015). Evaluation of Gafchromic EBT-XD film, with comparison to EBT3 film, and application in high dose radiotherapy verification. Physics in Medicine & Biology, 60(22), 8741.




How to Cite

M.N, N., M.R, M. A. A., A, N. A., & S, N. S. (2022). DOSE MAPPING OF GAMMA IRRADIATION CHAMBER (GIC). Asian Journal Of Medical Technology, 2(1), 49–57.